[DEBATE] : (Fwd) CDM landfill gas contagion hits CT, Joburg
pbond at mail.ngo.za
Fri Oct 3 04:41:27 BST 2008
(The ghastly Durban experience with Bisasar Rd landfill is due for
amplification in coming weeks. Damn. Am not sure whether CT sites are
CDMs but probably so.)
Gas from five landfill sites will be harvested to generate energy and to
trade as carbon credits. Gas from five landfill sites will be harvested
to generate energy and to trade as carbon credits.
Joburg to tap landfill energy
5 September 2008
JOBURG is about to embark on its first landfill-gas-to-energy projects.
They will also be the first notable Clean Development Mechanisms (CDM)
generating substantial carbon credits for the City to use for trading.
The due diligences for Linbro Park, Marie Louise, Robinson Deep,
Goudkoppies and Ennerdale landfills were concluded in March this year,
proving that all the sites have enough potential quantities of landfill
gas to generate electricity.
Landfill-gas-to-energy CDM projects will be initiated at all five sites.
A consortium headed by ENER•G Systems Joburg has since been appointed by
the City to take the process forward.
"The successful bidder, ENER•G Joburg, will incur all costs relating to
the development of the projects right up to the trading of carbon
credits and power that would have been generated by then," says Palesa
Mathibeli, the director for waste in the department of infrastructure
Johannesburg and ENER•G Joburg will share the profits resulting from the
sale of carbon credits and electricity.
"The primary aim is to harvest methane gas from landfill sites for the
purpose of generating power and to generate carbon credits for trading."
The sites can produce as much as 20 to 25 megawatts of electricity for
about 15 to 20 years, but the rate of gas production is dependent on a
number of variables, including the age and composition of the waste; the
temperature and moisture content of each site; and the design and
operation of the site, among others.
Because it is now mandatory for cities to manage landfill gasses,
flaring of methane gas will be undertaken irrespective of whether the
site can generate electricity or not, Mathibeli confirms.
"The flaring of methane gas reduces the amount of greenhouse gases
emitted to the atmosphere and improves air quality."
Flaring produces carbon dioxide, which is a far less harmful greenhouse
gas. Methane is considered to be up to 21 times more noxious than carbon
dioxide. The gas may also be used for other purposes, such as heating.
Once the projects are under way, the air and water quality of the
landfills will be closely monitored.
"Although it is acknowledged that all landfills do generate leachate and
landfill gas, the scientific quantification thereof is not available at
Leachate is a liquid that forms when water comes into contact with
landfill waste and consists of various contaminants. It has a strong,
offensive odour and is yellow-orange in colour.
Before the projects can begin, however, the City needs to complete
environmental impact studies, which include public participation processes.
"This is not only a requirement from the national and provincial
government, but also a requirement by the United Nations Framework
Convention on Climate Change," confirms Mathibeli.
Except for Linbro Park which was closed in 2006, the sites are still
operational. Studies have proven that operating sites yield more
landfill gas than closed ones.
The landfills in Kya Sands and Panorama have been closed for a long time
and did not form part of the feasibility study as they were considered
to be uneconomical.
Gas can be harvested while a landfill is still operational and for up to
50 years after closing the site. Once a landfill has been closed, it
will be rehabilitated in line with the end-use closure permit. It could
become anything from a new park to a cricket pitch or a golf course.
The landfills earmarked for the projects are at Houthammer Road,
Devland; Marlboro Drive, Sandton; Dobsonville Road, Roodepoort;
Turffontein Road, Turffontein; and Old Lawley Road, Lawley.
City to spend millions on landfill site rehabilitation. City to spend
millions on landfill site rehabilitation.
Landfill sites to be rehabilitated
15 September 2008
THE City of Cape Town’s former landfill sites at Swartklip, Faure,
Gordon’s Bay and Table View are to be turned into attractive public open
spaces suitable for recreation.
The landfill sites could also provide a valuable source of methane gas,
says Councillor Clive Justus, Mayoral Committee Member for the Utility
To convert these sites, R41 million has been budgeted to be spent in the
current financial year and a further R71 million will be spent in the
following two financial years.
The cost of rehabilitation of these landfill sites can be offset by
converting the methane gas - which is a by-product of the landfill sites
– into an alternative energy source.
“The City has entered into a memorandum of understanding with a
subsidiary company of the National Department of Mineral and Energy
Affairs, to capture and beneficially use the methane gas that is
produced as part of the natural decomposition processes of the waste.
This gas has potential value as a source of energy.
“The capture of the gas is undertaken through the introduction of a
series of ‘gas wells’ drilled into the landfill material along with an
underground pipe network. This will eliminate the uncontrolled discharge
of the gas to the atmosphere. The gas can then be used as a fuel and be
converted into an alternative energy source such as electricity. This,
in turn, can produce financial returns for the City from the sale of
electricity. It can also be a source of valuable carbon credits which
can be sold into the international carbon market,” Councillor Justus said.
He said this was important because the cost of covering and
rehabilitating Council landfill sites had risen substantially.
The main reasons include rapidly escalating fuel costs, the need for
considerable plant intensive work and the use of materials such as
imported HDPE (high density polyethylene), GCL (geosynthetic clay)
covers, clay, stone, topsoil and re-vegetation.
More information about the Debate-list